> Table of Contents > Diagnosis and Treatment: An Algorithmic Approach
Diagnosis and Treatment: An Algorithmic Approach
This section contains flowcharts (or algorithms) to help the reader in the diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms and treatment of a variety of clinical problems. They are organized by the presenting sign, symptom, or diagnosis.
These algorithms were designed to be used as a quick reference and adjunct to the reader's clinical knowledge and impression. They are not an exhaustive review of the management of a problem, nor are they meant to be a complete list of diseases.
P.A-2

ABDOMINAL PAIN, CHRONIC
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Shadi Hamdeh, MD and Adil Abdalla, MD
Camilleri M. Management of patients with chronic abdominal pain in clinical practice. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18(7):499-506.
P.A-3

ABDOMINAL PAIN, LOWER
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Andrew G. Alexander, MD, Maegen Dupper, MD, and Heidi S. Millard, MD
Cartwright SL, Knudson MP. Diagnostic imaging of acute abdominal pain in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(7):452-459.
P.A-4

ABDOMINAL PAIN, UPPER
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Matthew Chandler, MD and Marie L. Borum, MD, EdD, MPH
Yamamoto W, Kono H, Maekawa M, et al. The relationship between abdominal pain regions and specific diseases: an epidemiologic approach to clinical practice. J Epidemiol. 1997;7(1):27-32.
P.A-5

ACETAMINOPHEN POISONING, TREATMENT
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Marissa T. Casagrande, PharmD, Ryan B. Feeney, PharmD, and Frank M. Mazzotta, DO
Hodgman MJ, Garrard AR. A review of acetaminophen poisoning. Crit Care Clin. 2012;28(4):499-516.
P.A-6

ACIDOSIS
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Katelin Engerer, MD and Robert J. Hyde, MD, MA, NRP, FACEP
Kaplan LJ, Frangos S. Clinical review: acid-base abnormalities in the intensive care unit-part II. Crit Care. 2005;9(2):198-203.
P.A-7

ACNE
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Jason N. Butler, DO, MS and Lloyd A. Runser, MD, MPH
Lolis MS, Bowe WP, Shalita AR. Acne and systemic disease. Med Clin North Am. 2009;93(6):1161-1181.
P.A-8

ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL, TREATMENT
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Paul A. Tate, Jr., MD and Paul A. Savel, MD
Muncie HL Jr, Yasinian Y, Oge' L. Outpatient management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2013;88(9):589-595.
P.A-9

ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ELEVATION
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Reem Hadi, MD and Fozia Akhtar Ali, MD
Siddique A, Kowdley KV. Approach to a patient with elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. Clin Liver Dis. 2012;16(2):199-229.
P.A-10

AMENORRHEA, SECONDARY
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Maria Montanez, MD and Fozia Akhtar Ali, MD
Master-Hunter T, Heiman DL. Amenorrhea: evaluation and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73(8):1374-1382.
P.A-11

ANEMIA
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Robert A. Baldor, MD, FAAFP and Alan M. Ehrlich, MD
Smith DL. Anemia in the elderly. Am Fam Physician. 2000;62(7):1565-1572.
P.A-12

ANXIETY
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Bettina Bernstein, DO
Combs H, Markman J. Anxiety disorders in primary care. Med Clin North Am. 2014;98(5):1007-1023.
P.A-13

AST ELEVATION
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Daniel J. Stein, MD, MPH and Stephen K. Lane, MD, FAAFP
Giboney PT. Mildly elevated liver transaminase levels in the asymptomatic patient. Am Fam Physician. 2005;71(6):1105-1110.
P.A-14

ASTHMA EXACERBATION, PEDIATRIC ACUTE
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Jasmit S. Minhas, MD and John A. Saryan, MD
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Expert Panel Report 3 (EPR-3): guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma-summary report 2007. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120(5)(Suppl):S94-S138.
P.A-15

ASTHMA, INITIAL TREATMENT
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Michael C. Barros, PharmD, BCPS, BCACP, Colleen M. Prinzivalli, PharmD, BCPS, CGP, and
Alia Chisty, MD, MS FACP
Elward KS, Pollart SM. Medical therapy for asthma: updates from the NAEPP guidelines. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82(10):1242-1251.
P.A-16

ASTHMA, MAINTENANCE
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Michael C. Barros, PharmD, BCPS, BCACP, Colleen M. Prinzivalli, PharmD, BCPS, CGP, and Alia Chisty, MD, MS, FACP
Elward KS, Pollart SM. Medical therapy for asthma: updates from the NAEPP guidelines. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82(10):1242-1251.
P.A-17

ATAXIA
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Fozia Akhtar Ali, MD and Teny Anna Philip, MD
Brunberg JA. Ataxia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008;29(7):1420-1422.
P.A-18

CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS
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Amaninderapal S. Ghotra, MD, Suma Chennubhotla, MD, and Kelly McCants, MD
Link MS. Clinical practice. Evaluation and initial treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(15):1438-1448.
P.A-19

CERVICAL HYPEREXTENSION INJURY
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P.A-20

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Bobby Peters, MD, FAAEM
Pimentel L, Diegelmann L. Evaluation and management of acute cervical spine trauma. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2010;28(4):719-738.
P.A-21

CHEST PAIN/ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME
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Jeremy Golding, MD, FAAFP
Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;130(25):2354-2394.
P.A-22

CHILD ABUSE
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Wynne S. Morgan, MD and Peter J. Sell, DO, FAAP
Campbell KA, Olson LM, Keenan HT. Critical elements in the medical evaluation of suspected child physical abuse. Pediatrics. 2015;136(1):35-43.
P.A-23

CHRONIC JOINT PAIN AND STIFFNESS
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Kimberly Sikule, MD and J. Herbert Stevenson, MD
Pujalte GG, Albano-Aluquin SA. Differential diagnosis of polyarticular arthritis. Am Fam Physician. 2015;92(1):35-41.
P.A-24

CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD), DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
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P.A-25

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Scott E. Kopec, MD
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. http://www.goldcopd.org/
P.A-26

CIRRHOSIS
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Robert A. Baldor, MD, FAAFP and Alan M. Ehrlich, MD
Porter ML, Dennis BL. Hyperbilirubinemia in the term newborn. Am Fam Physician. 2002;65(4):599-606.
P.A-27

CONCUSSION, SIDELINE EVALUATION
Stable, No C-spine injury
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Caitlyn M. Rerucha, MD and Michelle E. Szczepanik, MD
Harmon KG, Drezner JA, Gammons M, et al. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement: concussion in sport. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(1):15-26.
P.A-28

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE: DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
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Michael T. Tanoue, MD, Parag Goyal, MD, and James M. Horowitz, MD, FACC
King M, Kingery J, Casey B. Diagnosis and evaluation of heart failure. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(12):1161-1168.
P.A-29

CONSTIPATION, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT (ADULT)
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Daniel J. Stein, MD, MPH and Stephen K. Lane, MD, FAAFP
Longstreth GF, Thompson WG, Chey WD, et al. Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology. 2006;130(5):1480-1491.
P.A-30

CONSTIPATION, TREATMENT (PEDIATRIC)
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Bethany N. Teer, MD
Tabbers MM, DiLorenzo C, Berger MY, et al. Evaluation and treatment of functional constipation in infants and children: evidence-based recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;58(2):258-274.
P.A-31

CONTRACEPTION
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P.A-32

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Amanda M. Carnes, MD
Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013: adapted from the World Health Organization selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, 2nd edition. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013;62(RR-05):1-60.
P.A-33

DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
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P.A-34

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Bency K. Louidor-Paulynice, MD and Kimberly Bombaci, MD
Wells P, Forgie M, Rodger M. Treatment of venous thromboembolism. JAMA. 2014;311(7):717-728.
P.A-35

DEHYDRATION, PEDIATRIC
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L. Michelle Seawright, DO and Nathaniel Stepp, DO, LCDR, USN
Tschudy M, Arcara K. Harriet Lane Handbook. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:271-291.
P.A-36

DELIRIUM
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Michelle DiBetta, MD and Holly L. Baab, MD
Kalish VB, Gillham JE, Unwin BK. Delirium in older persons: evaluation and management. Am Fam Physician. 2014;90(3):150-158.
P.A-37

DEMENTIA
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Kristin Grindstaff, DO and Casandra Cashman, MD, FAAFP
Simmons BB, Hartmann B, Dejoseph D. Evaluation of suspected dementia. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(8):895-902.
P.A-38

DEPRESSIVE EPISODE, MAJOR
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Wendy K. Marsh, MD, MSc
US Department of Verterans Affairs. VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Major Depressive Disorder. Washington, DC: Department of Veteran Affairs; 2010.
P.A-39

DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA), TREATMENT
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Emily Bouley, MD and Frank J. Domino, MD
Westerberg DP. Diabetic ketoacidosis: evaluation and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2013;87(5):337-346.
P.A-40

DIARRHEA, CHRONIC
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Lakshmi Devi Nelson Lattimer, MD and Marie L. Borum, MD, EdD, MPH
Schiller LR. Definitions, pathophysiology, and evaluation of chronic diarrhoea. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2012;25(5):551-562.
P.A-41

DISCHARGE, VAGINAL
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Nicole Shields, MD
Hainer BL, Gibson MV. Vaginitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;83(7):807-815.
P.A-42

DIZZINESS
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Jamal Islam, MD, MS
Pigott DC, Rosko CI. The dizzy patient: an evidence-based diagnosis and treatment strategy. Emerg Med Pract. 2001;3(3):1-20.
P.A-43

DYSPEPSIA
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Jennifer L. Hamilton, MD, PhD, FAAFP
Talley NJ, Ford AC. Functional dyspepsia. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(19):1853-1863.
P.A-44

DYSPHAGIA
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Shari Anthony, MD and Maria Cynthia S. Lopez, MD, FAAFP
Malagelada JR, Bazzoli F, Boeckxstaens G, et al. World gastroenterology organisation global guidelines: dysphagia-global guidelines and cascades update September 2014. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2015;49(5):370-378.
P.A-45

ERYTHROCYTOSIS
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Manisha J. Patel, MD and Tarun Kewalramani, MD
Patnaik MM, Tefferi A. The complete evaluation of erythrocytosis: congenital and acquired. Leukemia. 2009;23(5):834-844.
P.A-46

FATIGUE
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Paavan Mehta, MD and Frank J. Domino, MD
Rosenthal TC, Majeroni BA, Pretorius R, et al. Fatigue: an overview. Am Fam Physician. 2008;78(10):1173-1179.
P.A-47

FEVER IN THE FIRST 3 MONTHS OF LIFE
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Robyn Wing, MD and William Jerry Durbin, MD
Byington CL, Reynolds CC, Korgenski K, et al. Costs and infant outcomes after implementation of a care process model for febrile infants. Pediatrics. 2012;130(1):e16-e24.
P.A-48

FEVER OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN
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Rachelle E. Toman, MD, PhD, Megan Hollis, MD, and Angela Kuznia, MD, MPH
Hersch EC, Oh RC. Prolonged febrile illness and fever of unknown origin in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2014;90(2):91-96.
P.A-49

GAIT DISTURBANCE
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David T. O'Gurek, MD, FAAFP
Salzman B. Gait and balance disorders in older adults. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82(1):61-68.
P.A-50

GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD), DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
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Aniruddh Anil Patel, MD and Thomas L. Abell, MD
Katz PO, Gerson LB, Vela MF. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108(3):308-328.
P.A-51

GENITAL ULCERS
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Chidinma Osineme, MD and Midhuna William, MD
Roett MA, Mayor MT, Uduhiri KA. Diagnosis and management of genital ulcers. Am Fam Physician. 2012:85(3):254-262.
P.A-52

GYNECOMASTIA
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Katie L. Westerfield, DO and David C. Bury, DO
Narula HS, Carlson HE. Gynaecomastia-pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014;10(11):684-698.
P.A-53

HEADACHE, CHRONIC
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Amy Okpaku, DO
Yancey JR, Sheridan R, Koren KG. Chronic daily headache: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89(8):642-648.
P.A-54

HEART MURMUR
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Michael Argyle, DO and Brett Johnson, DO
Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Chatterjee K, et al. 2008 Focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1998 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease): endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation. 2008;118(15):e523-e661.
P.A-55

HEEL PAIN
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Alec DeCastro, MD
Tu P, Bytomski JR. Diagnosis of heel pain. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(8):909-916.
P.A-56

HEMATEMESIS (BLEEDING, UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL)
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Faruq Pradhan, MBBCh, Lisa N. Jarnagin, MBBCh, BAO, and Stephen C. Fabry, MD
Wilkins T, Khan N, Nabh A, et al. Diagnosis and management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(5):469-479.
P.A-57

HEMATURIA
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Krishna Manda, MD, MRCP
Sharp VJ, Barnes KT, Erickson BA. Assessment of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2013;88(11):747-754.
P.A-58

HEPATOMEGALY
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Matthew Chandler, MD and Marie L. Borum, MD, EdD, MPH
Starr SP, Raines D. Cirrhosis: diagnosis, management, and prevention. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(12):1353-1359.
P.A-59

HYPERCALCEMIA
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Deborah A. Lardner, DO, DTM&H and Michael Passafaro, DO, DTM&H, FACEP, FACOEP
Kacprowicz RF, Lloyd JD. Electrolyte complications of malignancy. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2009;27(2):257-269.
P.A-60

HYPERKALEMIA
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Matthew C. Kelly, MD and Michelle E. Szczepanik, MD
Kovesdy CP. Management of hyperkalemia: an update for the internist. Am J Med. 2015;128(12):1281-1287.
P.A-61

HYPERLIPIDEMIA
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Jason E. Cross, PharmD, Dinesh Yogaratnam, PharmD, and Sudeep K. Aulakh, MD, FACP, FRCPC
Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(25)(Suppl 2):S1-S45.
P.A-62

HYPERNATREMIA
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Timothy J. Coker, MD
Braun MM, Barstow CH, Pyzocha NJ. Diagnosis and management of sodium disorders: hyponatremia and hypernatremia. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(5):299-307.
P.A-63

HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA
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Steven W. Gale, MD and Timothy J. Coker, MD
Berglund L, Brunzell JD, Goldberg AC, et al. Evaluation and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(9):2969-2989.
P.A-64

HYPOALBUMINEMIA
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Lawrence M. Gibbs, MD, MSEd
Gatta A, Verardo A, Bolognesi M. Hypoalbuminemia. Intern Emerg Med. 2012;7(Suppl 3):S193-S199.
P.A-65

HYPOCALCEMIA
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Tiffany Burca, DO and Timothy J. Coker, MD
Michels TC, Kelly KM. Parathyroid disorders. Am Fam Physician. 2013;88(4):249-257.
P.A-66

HYPOGLYCEMIA
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Aimee L. Dietle, PharmD and Stephanie J. Billings, MD
Martens P, Tits J. Approach to the patient with spontaneous hypoglycemia. Eur J Intern Med. 2014;25(5):415-421.
P.A-67

HYPOKALEMIA
Differential Diagnosis
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Nathaniel D. Cranney, DO and Bethany N. Teer, MD
Medford-Davis L, Rafique Z. Derangements of potassium. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2014;32(2):329-347.
P.A-68

HYPONATREMIA
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Sultan M. Babar, MD and R. Aaron Lambert, MD
Lien YH, Shapiro JI. Hyponatremia: clinical diagnosis and management. Am J Med. 2007;120(8):653-658.
P.A-69

HYPOTENSION
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Amar Talati, DO and David O. Parrish, MS, MD, FAAFP
Mouncey PR, Osborn TM, Power GS, et al. Trial of early, goal-directed resuscitation for septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(14):1301-1311.
P.A-70

INFERTILITY
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Tiffany Tonismae, MD and Emily Evans-Hoeker, MD
Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Diagnostic evaluation of the infertile female: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2015;103(6):e44-e50.
P.A-71

JAUNDICE
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Krunal Patel, MD and Isabel Zacharias, MD
Roche SP, Kobos R. Jaundice in the adult patient. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(2):299-304.
P.A-72

KNEE PAIN
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Alec DeCastro, MD
Calmbach WL, Hutchens M. Evaluation of patients presenting with knee pain: part I. History, physical examination, radiographs, and laboratory tests. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68(5):907-912.
P.A-73

LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ELEVATION
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Curtis L. Galke, DO, FAAFP
Lossos IS, Breuer R, Intrator O, et al. Differential diagnosis of pleural effusion by lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme analysis. Chest. 1997;111(3):648-651.
P.A-74

LEAD TOXICITY, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT (ADULT)
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Han Q. Bui, MD, MPH
Kosnett MJ, Wedeen RP, Rothenberg SJ, et al. Recommendations for medical management of adult lead exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(3):463-471.
P.A-75

LOW BACK PAIN, CHRONIC
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Shawna King, DO and Holly L. Baab, MD
Herndon CM, Zoberi KS, Gardner BJ. Common questions about chronic low back pain. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(10):708-714.
P.A-76

LYMPHADENOPATHY
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Pamela Waters, MD and Jonathan S. Bassett, MD
Mohseni S, Shojaiefard A, Khorgami Z, et al. Peripheral lymphadenopathy: approach and diagnostic tools. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2)(Suppl):158-170.
P.A-77

LYMPHOPENIA
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Andrew Smith, MD and Erin Bassett-Novoa, MD
Brass D, Mckay P, Scott F. Investigating an incidental finding of lymphopenia. BMJ. 2014;348:g1721.
P.A-78

MENOPAUSE, EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT
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P.A-79

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Karen Browning, MD and Kelly Pagidas, MD
Huntzinger A. Practice guidelines: AHRQ releases evidence report on managing menopause-related symptoms. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72(4):709-710.
P.A-80

METABOLIC SYNDROME, TREATMENT
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Munawar Hayat, MD, Amber Durani, PA, and Tasaduq Mir, MD
Ginsberg HN. Treatment for patients with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2003;91(7A):29E-39E.
P.A-81

MIGRAINE, TREATMENT
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John M. Doan, DO and Robert K. Persons, DO
Worthington I, Pringsheim T, Gawel MJ, et al. Canadian Headache Society guideline: acute drug therapy for migraine headache. Can J Neurol Sci. 2013;40(5)(Suppl 3):S1-S80.
P.A-82

NAIL ABNORMALITIES
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Natasha J. Pyzocha, DO and Douglas M. Maurer, DO, MPH, FAAFP
Tully AS, Trayes KP, Studdiford JS. Evaluation of nail abnormalities. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(8):779-787.
P.A-83

NEUTROPENIA
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Andrew Smith, MD and Erin Bassett-Novoa, MD
Newburger PE, Dale DC. Evaluation and management of patients with isolated neutropenia. Semin Hematol. 2013;50(3):198-206.
P.A-84

NEVUS, ABNORMAL
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Amy Okpaku, DO
Perkins A, Duffy RL. Atypical moles: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(11):762-767.
P.A-85

PAIN, CHRONIC
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Ashik Lawrence, MD, Anubhav Kaul, MD, and Margaret Seaver, MD, MPH
Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Health Care Guideline: Assessment and Management of Chronic Pain. 5th ed. Bloomington, MN: Institute of Clinical System Improvement; 2011.
P.A-86

PAIN, CHRONIC, TREATMENT
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Ashik Lawrence, MD, Anubhav Kaul, MD, and Margaret Seaver, MD, MPH
Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Health Care Guideline: Assessment and Management of Chronic Pain. 5th ed. Bloomington, MN: Institute of Clinical System Improvement; 2011.
P.A-87

PALPABLE BREAST MASS
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Lindsay Petersen, MD and Andrea Madrigrano, MD
Salzman B, Fleegle S, Tully AS. Common breast problems. Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(4):343-349.
P.A-88

PALPITATIONS
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Abbott Cotton Widdicombe, MD and Frank J. Domino, MD
Wexler RK, Pleister A, Raman S. Outpatient approach to palpitations. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(1):63-69.
P.A-89

PAP, NORMAL AND ABNORMAL IN NONPREGNANT WOMEN AGES 25 YEARS AND OLDER
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Paul Pastor, MD
Adapted from American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. Algorithms: updated consensus guidelines for managing abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors. http://www.asccp.org/Portals/9/docs/Algorithms%207.30.13.pdf. Accessed 2015.
P.A-90

PAP, NORMAL AND ABNORMAL IN WOMEN AGES 21-24 YEARS
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Susan L. Steffans, DO
American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. Algorithms: updated consensus guidelines for management of abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors. http://www.asccp.org/Portals/9/docs/ASCCP%20Management%20Guidelines_August%202014.pdf. Accessed August 2015.
P.A-91

PARKINSON DISEASE, TREATMENT
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Sarah Coles, MD and William Dabbs, MD
Gazewood JD, Richards DR, Clebak K. Parkinson disease: an update. Am Fam Physician. 2013;87(4):267-273.
P.A-92

PEDIATRIC EXANTHEMS, DIAGNOSTIC
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Phillip Fournier, MD
Dyer JA. Childhood viral exanthems. Pediatr Ann. 2007;36(1):21-29.
P.A-93

PELVIC PAIN
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Meredith Gray, MD and Isaiah Johnson, MD
Howard FM. Chronic pelvic pain. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(3):594-611.
P.A-94

POISON EXPOSURE AND TREATMENT
POISON EXPOSURE
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P.A-95

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Andrew Romney, DO and Lee T. Church, MD
Frithsen IL, Simpson WM Jr. Recognition and management of acute medication poisoning. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81(3):316-323.
P.A-96

PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY
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Nicole Shields, MD
Berberog─člu M. Precocious puberty and normal variant puberty: definiton, etiology, diagnosis and current management. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2009;1(4):164-174.
P.A-97

PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION OF NONCARDIAC SURGICAL PATIENT
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Andrew Grimes, MD and Stacy Jones, MD
Ghadimi K, Thompson A. Update on perioperative care of the cardiac patient for noncardiac surgery. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2015;28(3):342-348.
P.A-98

PROTEINURIA
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John M. Doan, DO and Robert K. Persons, DO
BMJ Best Practice. Assessment of proteinuria. http://us.bestpractice.bmj.com/best-practice/monograph/875.html Updated September 17, 2014. Accessed July 20, 2015.
P.A-99

PULMONARY EMBOLISM, DIAGNOSIS
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Erynn E. Elleby, MD and Lawrence M. Gibbs, MD, MSEd
Dupras D, Bluhm J, Felty C, et al. Institute for clinical systems improvement. Venous thromboembolism diagnosis and treatment. https://www.icsi.org/_asset/sw0pgp/vte.pdf. Updated January 2013.
P.A-100

PULMONARY EMBOLISM, TREATMENT
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Ryan B. Feeney, PharmD and Frank M. Mazzotta, DO
Jaff MR, McMurtry MS, Archer SL, et al. Management of massive and submassive pulmonary embolism, iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(16):1788-1830.
P.A-101

RASH, FOCAL
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P.A-102

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Brandon Kirsch, MD and Jason C. Sluzevich, MD
Ely JW, Seabury Stone M. The generalized rash: part I. Differential diagnosis. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81(6):726-734.
P.A-103

RECTAL BLEEDING AND HEMATOCHEZIA
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Mohammad Ansar Mughal, MD
Hoedema RE, Luchtefeld MA. The management of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48(11):2010-2024.
P.A-104

RECURRENT PREGNANCY LOSS
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Virginia Van Duyne, MD
Alijotas-Reig J, Garrido-Gimenez C. Current concepts and new trends in the diagnosis and management of recurrent miscarriage. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2013;68(6):445-466.
P.A-105

RED EYE
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Drew-Anne Drapala, MD and Vincent Lo, MD, FAAFP
Cronau H, Kankanala RR, Mauger T. Diagnosis and management of red eye in primary care. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81(2):137-144.
P.A-106

SALICYLATE POISONING, ACUTE, TREATMENT
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Alicia G. Lydecker, MD, Matthew K. Griswold, MD, and Kavita Babu, MD
Chyka PA, Erdman AR, Christianson G, et al. Salicylate poisoning: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2007;45(2):95-131.
P.A-107

SEIZURE, NEW ONSET
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Andrew S. Hellenga, MD and Matthew J. Snyder, DO
Wilden JA, Cohen-Gadol AA. Evaluation of first nonfebrile seizures. Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(4):334-340.
P.A-108

SHOULDER PAIN, TREATMENT
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Shane L. Larson, MD and Derek G. Zickgraf, DO
Song A, Higgins LD, Newman J, et al. Glenohumeral corticosteroid injections in adhesive capsulitis: a systematic search and review. PM R. 2014;6(12):1143-1156.
P.A-109

SICKLE CELL ANEMIA, ACUTE, EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT
This algorithm is meant to assist clinicians in the workup and management of common complications of sickle cell disease. It should not replace a physician's clinical judgment or be considered a standardized protocol for all patients.
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P.A-110

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Andrew S. Hellenga, MD and Matthew J. Snyder, DO
New England Pediatric Sickle Cell Consortium. Clinical practice guidelines. http://www.nepscc.org/nepscc.html. Accessed 2015.
P.A-111

SUICIDE, EVALUATING RISK FOR
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Irene C. Coletsos, MD and Harold J. Bursztajn, MD
Posner K, Oquendo MA, Gould M, et al. Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA): classification of suicidal events in the FDA's pediatric suicidal risk analysis of antidepressants. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(7):1035-1043.
P.A-112

SYNCOPE
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Tammy Donoway, DO, FAAFP
Gauer RL. Evaluation of syncope. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(6):640-650.
P.A-113

THROMBOCYTOPENIA
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Nupam A. Patel, MD and Samuel B. Carli, MD
Reese JA, Li X, Hauben M, et al. Identifying drugs that cause acute thrombocytopenia: an analysis using 3 distinct methods. Blood. 2010;116(12):2127-2133.
P.A-114

TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK AND TRANSIENT NEUROLOGIC DEFECTS
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Deborah A. Lardner, DO, DTM&H and Michael Passafaro, DO, DTM&H, FACEP, FACOEP
Simmons BB, Cirignano B, Gadegbeku AB. Transient ischemic attack: part I. Diagnosis and evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(6):521-526.
P.A-115

TREMOR
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Kenneth Liu, PharmD, Steven J. Crosby, MA, BSP, RPh, FASCP, and Ildiko Halasz, MD
Crawford P, Zimmerman EE. Differentiation and diagnosis of tremor. Am Fam Physician. 2011;83(6):697-702.
P.A-116

TYPE 2 DIABETES, TREATMENT
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Andrew G. Alexander, MD
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(1):S1-S94.
P.A-117

UREMIA
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Steven A. House, MD, FAAFP, FAAHPM, HMDC
Rahman M, Shad F, Smith MC. Acute kidney injury: a guide to diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(7):631-639.
P.A-118

VAGINAL BLEEDING DURING PREGNANCY
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Emily Reus, MD and Mark J. Manning, DO, MsMEL
Gracia CR, Barnhart KT. Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy: decision analysis comparing six strategies. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;97(3):464-470.
P.A-119

VAGINAL BLEEDING, ABNORMAL
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Tanya E. Anim, MD and Jennifer Tickal Keehbauch, MD
Sweet MG, Schmidt-Dalton TA, Weiss PM, et al. Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(1):35-43.
P.A-120

VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY
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Gisela M. Lopez Payares, MD and Fozia Akhtar Ali, MD
Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(7):1911-1930.
P.A-121

WEIGHT LOSS, UNINTENTIONAL
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Crystal Amadi, MD and Fozia Akhtar Ali, MD
Gaddey HL, Holder K. Unintentional weight loss in older adults. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89(9):718-722.